These are tthe strict observances recommended by the Buddha to monks to help to cultivate contentedness, renunciation, and energy.
The 13 dhutangas, consisting in the vows of
- 1. wearing patched-up robes: pamsukūlik'anga,
- 2. wearing only three robes: tecīvarik'anga,
- 3. going for alms: pindapātik'anga,
- 4. not omitting any house whilst going for alms: sapadānikanga,
- 5. eating at one sitting: ekāsanik'anga,
- 6. eating only from the alms-bowl: pattapindik'anga,
- 7. refusing all further food: khalu-pacchā-bhattik'anga,
- 8. living in the forest: āraññik'anga,
- 9. living under a tree: rukkha-mūlik'anga,
- 10. living in the open air: abbhokāsik'anga,
- 11. living in a cemetery: susānik'anga,
- 12. being satisfied with whatever dwelling: yathā-santhatik'anga,
- 13. sleeping in the sitting position (and never lying down): nesajjik'anga.